Valuation of Socio-economic and Health Impacts of Typhoid Outbreak in Calamba City, Laguna Province

Ma. Victoria O Espaldon, Jesusita O Coladilla, Rico C Ancog, Sue Liza C Saguiguit, Marya Laya O Espaldon, Zenaida M Sumalde
Vol 11 No 2 (2008), pp. 79-90




The incidence of typhoid fever outbreak in Calamba City which peaked in the months of February-May 2008 entailed direct and indirect socio-economic and health impact costs estimated at about PhP 29,568,018.00. It affected different sectors of the city regardless of socioeconomic groups and was found to be costlier as two or more members in a family could be sick whose duration of infection and recovery is found to be relatively long. Majority of the typhoid patients have identified water as the main cause resulting to a clear shift of their water usage from public water utility connections to other drinking and domestic water sources such as deep well and bottled mineral water. This underscores the need for improved water governance that will implement a regular water quality monitoring system to ensure safety and prevent avoidable costs.


Keywords: Calamba City, water governance, typhoid outbreak, economic valuation, health impacts

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