Status and Distribution of Alien Invasive Frogs in the Philippines

Arvin C Diesmos, Mae L Diesmos, Rafe M Brown
Vol 9 No 2 (2006), pp. 41-53




The Philippine amphibian fauna includes five introduced species of frogs: Bufo marinus (Linnaeus), Rana catesbeiana (Shaw), Hoplobatrachus chinensis (Osbeck), Rana erythraea (Schlegel), and Kaloula pulchra Gray. Bufo marinus was introduced in the Philippines in the 1930s purportedly to control the explosive population of crop insect pests. The species is now found in numerous islands across the country through subsequent introductions both accidental and deliberate in nature. Rana catesbeiana and possibly H. chinensis were both intentionally introduced during the 1960s for commercial farming. Escaping confinement, populations of these species can now be found on several major islands of the country. The history of introduction of R. erythraea and K. pulchra in the Philippines remains unclear. Among these species, B. marinus and H. chinensis exhibit the highest population densities and are widely distributed. Our findings also suggest that H. chinensis is a potentially harmful invasive species. This paper reviews the status and distribution of alien invasive frogs known in the Philippines and summarizes updated ecological information on each species. We also provide management recommendations to help control the spread of these alien frogs and introduced organisms in general in the Philippines


Keywords: chytridiomycosis, amphibian population, Alien invasive species, frogs

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