Tree Growing Objectives of Smallholder Farmers in Claveria, Northern Mindanao, Philippines

Canesio D Predo, Herminia A Francisco
Vol 15 No 1 (2012), pp. 72-85




This study aimed to capture the underlying motives of smallholders for planting trees in their farms. Specifically, it aimed to identify the farm and household characteristics that might explain the underlying tree growing objectives of smallholder farmers, and draw policy implications for enhancing tree growing among farmers. The study was conducted in Claveria, northern Mindanao, Philippines. It made use of 192 farmer-respondents who practiced tree based farming systems with corn being the dominant crop.

Empirical evidence from the principal component analysis indicated that smallholders’ farm forestry is an investment with multi-objectives, primarily focusing on monetary and other economic objectives. The fi rst component represents “employment, economic security and asset motive” of tree growing was related to labor income and selfemployment, increase income from timber sales, asset motives, security in old age, speculative motive, etc. The second component interpreted to represent “recreation and aesthetic objective” was characterized by non-timber use of tree growing such as outdoor recreation, solitude and meditation, aesthetic value, and improved healthy residential environment. The variables relating to the objectives of restoring farm fertility and productivity, erosion control measure, nature protection, and making the environment cooler represented the third component, as “environmental protection and restoration objective.”

Tree planting for monetary and economic objectives was signifi cantly and positively infl uenced by farm distance from barangay center and inversely related to gender and education of household heads, household size, total annual cash income, and average farm distance from the nearest road. Similar variables were associated with recreation and aesthetic objectives of tree planting except on civil status. Environmental and restoration motive was negatively associated with farming experience of households. However, it was uniquely related to the age of household heads and knowledge level regarding tree-based systems. This fi nding has signifi cant implications on agricultural technology adoption in general, and tree farming in particular.


Keywords: tree growing, smallholder farmers, principal component analysis, grasslands, Philippines

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